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Gulf Cooperation Council’s prospects and associates policies for Pakistan

Mehmood-Ul-Hassan Khan

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is the land, blessed with unlimited gas and oil reservoirs. The GCC is the place of so many sacred shrines and modern success stories. It is the hub of human and natural diversity, dynamics, and devotion. It is the soil known for nationalism and openheartedness. From centuries this part of the world has had been centre of knowledge, trade, tourism and above all humanity.

Keeping in view, the different emerging socio-economic challenges, geo-political serious issues and geo-strategic compulsions the rulers of this region formed a political and economic union named the Gulf Cooperation Council consisting of six regional countries i.e. Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in May 25, 1981.

Most recently, the 31th Gulf Cooperation Council summit was held in Abu Dhabi on 6-7 December. The leaders of Saudi Arabia, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and Kuwait discussed thoroughly on different national, regional and international emerging trends in socio-economy, politics and geo-strategic. They spelled out different laws, regulations and strategies to achieve the desired goals of the GCC agenda and formation. In the concluding statement the leaders of the GCC states showed their deep concerns about the emerging geo-political and geo-strategic scenarios in Arab Gulf and the Middle East and chalked out their short and long term policy initiatives to counter them successfully.

1. Pakistan

At the 31th GCC summit concluding session the leaders once again reassured their strong political commitments towards the wellbeing of most affected people of the recent floods. They also reaffirmed the continued extension of humanitarian assistance to the government and people of Pakistan in the post-flood period. They also appealed to international community to support the people of Pakistan in order to alleviate their sufferings caused by the recent deadly flood in the country.

2. UAE Islands

The important geo-political regional issues were also featured in the concluding statement of the 31th GCC Summit. They condemned the continued occupation of three UAE islands i.e. The Greater Tunb, The Lesser Tunb and Abu Musa by Iran and demanded the return of these islands under its full sovereignty, including their regional waters, airspace, continental shelf and their exclusive economic zone, as integral parts of the United Arab Emirates. The GCC leaders called upon the international community to urge Iran to respond to the peaceful and sincere initiatives of the United Arab Emirates, which call for a just settlement of this issue, either through direct and serious negotiations between the two countries or by referring the issue to the International Court of Justice to settle this dispute in accordance with the principles of the UN Charter and provisions of international law.

3. Regional Cooperation in the fields of security

They stressed the need to have closed cooperation in the fields of security, defence/military, intelligence information sharing, and the last but not the least peaceful nuclear energy cooperation among the GCC states. They reaffirmed their commitments to be transparent, open and fair to international regulatory bodies i.e. IAEA for the implementation and execution of their peaceful nuclear energy programs in the region. The leaders emphasized the importance of having joint defence/military cooperation and mechanism in all the GCC states in order to prepare themselves for any geo-strategic threats.

4. Free Zone of Weapons of Mass Destruction

They reiterated their principled stance which calls for making the Gulf Region and the Middle East a zone free of weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. They called upon Israel to implement the resolution adopted by Parties of the Treaty to join the NPT unconditionally. They also urged Iran to fully cooperate with the IAEA and the international community in order to assuage regional and international fears and doubts raised on its nuclear program.

5. Terrorism and Extremism

They showed deep concerns about the terrorism, extremism and violence and proposed certain effective policy tools to combat terrorism by enhancing capacity building measures, information sharing, training, technological innovation, and moreover, establishment of international anti-terrorist center. They also emphasized the need to further strengthening of inter-faith harmony and continued dialogue session between the different civilizations in order to make better understanding about the diversified cultures and religions.

6. Importance of Socio-Economic Development

The GCC leaders also emphasized the importance of socio-economic development not confined only to heath, education, environment, climate change, water conservation and employment generation in their respective countries. They also reviewed the importance of certain specifications and standards in each field of the regional national economies respectively.

7. Mega Infrastructural Development

They also mentioned the different useful proposals of the participating six states and discussed thoroughly their collective benefits. They featured the importance of infrastructure and approved the mega projects of railways, electrification, trade & commerce, science and technology and cultural cooperation and collaboration among the GCC states.

8. Human Resources

The leaders focused on the industrialization and best utilization of available human resources in the GCC states. The leaders discussed GCC-EU socio-economic bilateral relations and prospects of having free trade agreement with it.

9. Solidarity with Iraq

They reassured their commitments for the progress and prosperity of the people of Iraq through comprehensive national reconciliation without any discrimination. They also reiterated the necessity to respect the territorial integrity, sovereignty, independence of Iraq, and furthermore, safeguarding its Arab and Islamic identity.

10. Palestine- Israel issue

On the issue of Palestine-Israel issue the leaders stressed the need to have peaceful resolution of the burning issue by ending the Israeli occupation of the Occupied Palestinian and other Arab Territories and its withdrawal to the line of 4 June 1967, including East Jerusalem, the Syrian Golan Heights and the remaining occupied territories in Southern Lebanon, in order to achieve a just and comprehensive peace in accordance with the resolutions of international legitimacy. They pledged their support to the Palestinian National Authority and its people. They also demanded the stop of Israel settlement policy which caused many dimensional repercussions in the region.

11. Importance of Maritime Piracy

They also spelled out the importance of maritime piracy and stressed the need to have mutual naval cooperation among the GCC states.

12. Lebanon

They declared support to the efforts of the Lebanese government towards achieving security, stability and national unity and called for respecting the sovereignty of the Lebanese state and for ceasing the repeated Israeli violations of the Lebanese airspace, waters, territories and regional safety in accordance with the Security Council Resolution 1701.

13. Yemen

On the issue of Yemen they showed their commitments towards the security and stability of Yemen and its territorial integrity and safety. They urged the international community to stand by the government of Yemen and extend to it the necessary assistance and support.

14. North Korea

They also showed their deep concerns about the high tensions between the North and the South Korea and requested both of them to restrain from the further armed struggle and follow the means of diplomacy and dialogue to settle their disputes.

15. Water Security Agenda

Water is life and one of the cheapest sources of energy in the world. At the closing of the 31th Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) summit, presided by H.H. Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the council jointly announced a comprehensive plan to cope with the declining levels of water which is indeed one of the biggest regional challenges. United Arab Emirates has now become president of the GCC and it is determined to take effective policy initiatives about the water security.

Sheikh Abdullah bin Zayed, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, reaffirmed that the focus of the GCC in the next year would primarily include water security, removing obstacles to the Gulf’s proposed customs union, and negotiating free trade agreements with other blocs of countries. Abdul Rahman al Atiyyah the outgoing secretary general of the GCC states also endorsed the importance of water security, diversification of energy resources and food security for the socio-economic prosperity of the regional countries. He outlined the plan of water security.

Salient Features

(a) Reduction of the carbon footprint of GCC states, measured as among the highest in the world.
(b) Concrete steps to build a long-term strategy for water security
(c) Strong commitment to combating climate change.
(d) Study of the multidimensional effects of the climate change especially on the regional water reservoirs.
(e) Elimination in the effects of desalination on marine life and climate change.
(f) Revision of the national and regional standards that would limit the carbon footprint of the energy and water sectors, as well as the carbon footprint of individual homes.
(g) To increase efficiency and support research results studies in order to make energy and water production more efficient.
(h) Preparations of the draft legislation that would mandate improving the efficiency of the associated industries.
(i) Promotion of the water conservation.
(j) Enhance public awareness about the domestic usage of water.
(k) Improvement in the regional desalination plants by funding research and buying new desalination technology.
(l) Introduction of new efficiency standards for home appliances.
(m) More focus on the regional agriculture sector and try to promote environmentally friendly farming practices like hydroponics farming.

The above mentioned salient features of the water security agenda clearly indicate the determination of all the six countries of the GCC to cope with the emerging threats of human survival in the region in the shape of increasing incidents of climate change, declining ratios of water, low level of agro-production and the last but not the least food security.

Most recently, UAE Minister of Foreign Affairs H.H Sheikh Abdullah Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan stressed the need to have joint economic system to create one economic bloc and look forward to make economic achievements by next year in GCC while addressing to the opening ceremony of the 117th ministerial meeting held ahead of the 31st GCC Summit scheduled in Abu Dhabi between 6th and 7th December. Sheikh Abdullah Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan is of the opinion that complicated geo-political and geo-strategic trends are emerging in the Arab Gulf which needs rigorous consultation, communication and coordination among the GCC.

Main objectives of the GCC

(a) Standardization and formation of similar regulations in various fields such as economy, finance, trade, customs, tourism, legislation, and administration.
(b) Fostering scientific and technical progress in industry, mining, agriculture, water and animal resources.
(c) Establishing scientific research centers.
(d) Setting up joint ventures.
(e) Unified military presence.
(f) Encouraging cooperation of the private sector.
(g) Strengthening ties between their peoples.
(h) Establishing a common currency by 2010.

GCC Marco-Economy Projections in 2010

According to IMF, World Bank and IIF following an overall growth rate of less than 1 percent in 2009, the real GDP of the GCC region is expected to increase by 4.1 per cent in 2010 and 4.6 per cent in 2011. Despite pressures from rising global non-fuel commodity prices, particularly food prices, average 2010 inflation in the region is projected at around 3.5 per cent in 2010 and 4.2 per cent in 2011. The consolidated current account surplus of GCC countries is projected to increase from US$62 billion (Dh228 billion) in 2009 to US$119 billion in 2010 and US$134 billion in 2011. The IIF (2010) projects the region’s gross foreign assets to reach to US$1.7 trillion by the end of 2011. So, all the macro-economic indicators of the GCC region is strong and stable.

Selected Economic Indicators 2009

Country GDP $ trillion GDP per capita Resident population Labour force
million Oil reserves (bn. Barrels) Oil consumption (barrels per day) Gas reveres (trillion cubic m) Gas consumption (bn. Cubic meter per year)
UAE 0.2 $40,000 4.8 (86 % expatriates) 3.3 97.8 0.4 million 61 43.1
Saudi Arabia 0.6 $20,700 28.6 (20 % expatriates) 6.7 266.8 10.0 million 7.2 37.0
Kuwait 0.2 $57,400 2.7 (48% expatriates) 2.2 104.0 0.3 million 1.6 12.5
Qatar 0.1 $103,500 0.8 (80% expatriates) 1.1 15.2 0.1 million 25.6 20.1
Oman 0.1 $20,200 3.4 (17% expatriates) 0.9 5.5 0.1 million 0.1 11.0
Bahrain >0.1 $37,200 0.7 (32% expatriates) 0.5 0.1 >0.1 million 0.1 11.3
Source: Different issues of IMF, WB and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

GCC Macro-Economy Strength (2010-11)

According to the latest report of the Dubai Chamber of Commerce and Industry, or (DCCI) the GCC countries are in a solid recovery mode as their real gross domestic product, or GDP, is expected to surge by 4.6 per cent in 2011 following an overall growth of less than one per cent in 2009. Moreover, GCC current account balance is projected to increase to 11.8 per cent of the GDP in 2010 and 12.3 per cent of GDP in 2011. It is expected that GCC may have larger net foreign assets of about 110 per cent of GDP in 2010 and 113 per cent in 2011. GCC fiscal balances are projected to improve significantly by almost seven percentage points of GDP between 2009 and 2011. The DCCI said the GCC countries have fiscal space to maintain additional stimulus in 2010 and 2011 that will be capable of strengthening private sector demand.

According to the latest report of IIF (2010) the net foreign assets of the countries of the GCC will surge from $1.049 trillion at end-2009 to $1.34 trillion by end-2011 equivalent to 122 per cent of the region’s gross domestic product. It further estimated that the consolidated current account surplus of the GCC nations would widen from $62 billion in 2009 to $119 billion in 2010 and $134 billion in 2011. According to the report the GCC gross foreign assets will rise to $1.7 trillion by end-2011.

It is again predicted that investment projects are going to be the main economic driver of domestic demand for the region’s economy that would accelerate GCC states non-oil GDP growth for this year and next. According to the GN Quarterly Financial Review (2010), the key drivers for the GCC oil, tourism and remittances will still remain at a supportive level and help sustain private consumption. According to the latest financial review the economic forecast of the GCC states’ aggregate, weighted real non-oil GDP growth will accelerate to 4.7 per cent in 2011 and 5.2 per cent in 2011.

(a) National income averaged 19 percent growth in the past four years on sharply higher oil and non-oil activity, public spending and domestic confidence
(b) Current account and fiscal surpluses of 26 percent and 17 percent of 2006 GDP respectively, and likely to rise further if high oil prices are sustained.
(c) Despite massive spending on projects, GCC governments added almost US$500 billion to net foreign assets.
(d) Investment boom with US$1.25 trillion in planned public and private projects will continue to propel growth of the private sector.
(e) Purchasing power sharply higher as per capita GDP averages 15 percent annual growth over four years despite rising inflationary pressures.
(f) The GCC countries are preparing to pour
(g) between US$10bn (Dh36.72bn) and $25bn into light and heavy rail to modernize urban centers and battle road congestion.
(h) Telecommunications companies from the GCC region have stormed into international markets, doing business in 78 countries today compared with just six in 2004. The expansion spree has extended the footprint of Gulf operators from Morocco to Indonesia, covering most of Africa and the subcontinent in the process and competing with global giants such as the Vodafone Group of the UK and France Telecom

Potential Concerns

It is predicted that despite the positive outlook for the GCC economies in 2011 and their robust fundamentals, some serious risks remain which are given below as:

(a) Slow recovery of the global economy might reduce oil prices and consequently worsen the fiscal and the external balance.
(b) Persistence of weak private demand and tight financial conditions might lead to an increase in corporate distress and loss of confidence.
(c) Continued slowdown in private credit growth might constrain further loan supply.
(d) The Gulf region has more than $60 billion (Dh220 billion) debt maturing in 2011 and in the absence of liquidity in the bank market, companies will need to seek long term funding through capital markets which should be tightly monitored.

United Arab Emirates Leading Position in GCC

United Arab Emirates has leading position in the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. From pure economy to tourism, political harmony to social development, foreign direct investments to mega infrastructure, cultural affinity to better law and order situation and the last but not the least anti human trafficking to labour market reforms, UAE is second to none in the GCC region.

(a) UAE has the highest literacy rate in the GCC region
(b) It has lowest child mortality in the region
(c) It has biggest clean drinking water plant
(d) It possess tallest building, biggest airport and largest Cargo terminal too
(e) The air trafficking in UAE is highest
(f) Cumulative FDI flow into the UAE totaled around US$73.4 billion, nearly 26 per cent of the combined foreign capital received by the six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
(g) Most innovation driven economy in the region
(h) Most prosperous country in GCC
(i) Technological acceptability and adoptability is the highest in the region
(j) The trade between the UAE and GCC countries reached its peak i.e. Dh64.3 billion in 2008. The UAE’s trade exchange with GCC countries increased by 88 per cent from the period (2003-2006), compared to the period from 1999-2002 which shows its leading position in the GCC region
(k) UAE consumer confidence is the highest in the GCC region 2010
(l) The UAE has most advanced railways communication in the region and it has planned heavy rail network running from Abu Dhabi to Fujairah will eventually become part of the 2,000km GCC network expected to open in 2017. The network will run from Kuwait City through Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar and the UAE before terminating in Oman, or possibly Yemen.
(m) According to many IMF, IIF and World Bank reports the banking sector of the GCC banks had remained resilient during the recent global financial crisis. In the 2006-2008 period, almost all GCC banking institutions charted year-on-year double-digit growth in their financing portfolios. According to latest ranking Emirates NBD is top on the list with assets as at the end of 2009 US 76.7 billion dollars, National Commercial Bank of Saudi Arabia is on the second position with assets of US 68. 6 billion dollars and National Bank of Abu Dhabi is on the third place with US 53.6 billion dollars assets during the same period.
(n) The UAE has moved up nine places to win the top spot among the Arab Gulf countries in gender equality according to a World Economic Forum report (2010) on gender gaps. The labour force participation rate for women improved in the UAE federation, the wage gap between men and women narrowed, and the proportion of women in ministerial posts rose.

Gulf Common Market

Recently, the Gulf Common Market (GCM) Committee met in Riyadh recommended circulating UAE experience in highlighting the strategic role of GCM among the members to encourage them to advance in this regard.

The UAE Ministry of Finance also released statistical data for 2009 related to the Gulf Common Market (GCM) which verifies that the UAE is at the forefront of GCC countries in GCM integration. It is the leading GCC country with balanced and sustained development and is keen to participate in the further success and expansion of GCM. The GCM project came into effect at the beginning of 2008. Its main aims was to facilitate real estate ownership, the movement of capital, equality of tax treatment, trading of stocks, establishing companies, as well as benefiting from educational and health services and social development.

UAE is working hard to enhance the competitiveness of GCC economic bloc. According to the report of Ministry of Finance (2010) UAE played very important role in the further development and integration of Gulf Common Market by implementing GCC Supreme Council resolutions which is given below as:

(a) GCC nationals residing in UAE increased to 7,650 in 2009 from 5,608 in 2008.
(b) Governmental loans granted to GCC nationals to establish industrial projects rose to AED 20 million in 2009 as compared to AED 5.5 million in 2008.
(c) GCC nationals own property in the UAE rose to 22,706 in 2009.
(d) 1,884 licenses for professional and commercial activities were granted to GCC nationals
(e) Seven commercial GCC banks were operating in the UAE in 2009.
(f) 3,080 GCC nationals were working in UAE’s private sector in 2009 compared to 2,117 in 2008 while 605 were working in federal governmental entities and 1.932 in local governmental bodies.
(g) 207 GCC nationals were employed in UAE’s semi-government sector in 2009.
(h) Joint stock companies listed on UAE exchanges that can be traded in by GCC nationals rose to 85 out of a total of 153 and GCC investors actively trading were 27,6805 in 2009, an increase of 1,222 compared to 2008.
(i) GCC students studying in UAE schools rose to 16,463 in 2009, an increase of 987 students from 2008. 12,892 GCC students were in public schools and 3,571 in private schools. 3,589 GCC nationals benefit from insurance protection in 2009, an increase of 597 from the previous year.

Pakistan and Free Trade Agreement with GCC

Pakistan and the Gulf Cooperation Council six countries enjoy privileged relations at all political, economic and social levels. Millions of Pakistani expatriates are working in the GCC. Their earnings contribute substantially to the foreign reserves of Pakistan. More than 250 social welfare projects of the UAE and generous humanitarian assistance of the Saudi Arabia and rest of the GCC states to the government and most affected people in flood hit areas of Pakistan are the prime example of our trustworthy and time-tested relations with us.

It is expected that Pakistan and the GCC are about to sign Free Trade Agreement (FTA) in the near future. It is hoped that FTA between Pakistan and the GCC would be comprehensive in nature covering the overall economic relations between the two sides. It is hoped that the FTA will provide an opportunity to Pakistani exporters to tap the demand for goods in the GCC countries under the reduced tariff in the first phase and without tariff in the long term. Moreover, the FTA will help abolish or reduce the existing five percent import duty imposed in the GCC countries, which will ultimately help reduce prices of Pakistani products in the region. Pakistan is importing raw materials, semi-finished goods and oil from the GCC countries and the FTA will reduce the cost of these imports. Bilateral trade volume between Pakistan and the GCC states comes around average $4.5-4.7 billion in 2008-2009.

On the part of Pakistan it is keen on developing special economic zones for investors from all the GCC especially the Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Pakistan’s agriculture sector has the potential to cater to the food requirements of the GCC region, which spends over $200 billion on farm imports. According to Board of Investment, Pakistan (2009), the government of Pakistan received investment commitments of more than $30 billion from the GCC investors in Pakistan’s agriculture, livestock and dairy sectors. Major groups from GCC in general and the UAE in particular are willing to avail the opportunity and commit significant investment in Pakistan’s agriculture sector.

It is suggested that agriculture and dairy will be a win-win situation for Pakistan-GCC as Pakistan has some of the highest returns in the sector and GCC imports 90 per cent of its agri-dairy needs.

Country Exports to Pakistan
UAE Petroleum, petrochemical products, iron ore, scrap-plastics, chemical products, non-ferrous metals-machines, spare parts of cars ships and boats
Imports from Pakistan
Nylon textiles, silk & wool, rice, cotton, crochet-dye, textile-treatment requirements of fabrics and clothes, towels, marble and surgical instruments

Country Exports to Pakistan
Saudi Arabia Petroleum, petrochemical products, spare parts of cars ships and boats
Imports from Pakistan
Raw cotton, cotton yarn, cotton cloth, readymade garments, knitwear (hosiery), bed linen, towels, tents and canvas, art silk and synthetic textiles, leather garments, furniture, carpets and rugs, footwear, sports goods and surgical goods, rice, fish, fruits, vegetables, spices, biscuits, jams, juices
Country Exports to Pakistan
Kuwait Petroleum, petrochemical products
Imports from Pakistan
Sails & tents, rice, machinery & machinery parts, fish, Cotton Fabrics, leather and fur skins, and fruits & vegetables.
Country Exports to Pakistan
Oman Petroleum, petrochemical products
Imports from Pakistan
Rice, fish, cotton, fabrics, leather garments, fruits and vegetables
Country Exports to Pakistan
Qatar Liquefied natural gas and crude oil, petrochemical products
Imports from Pakistan
Rice, fish, cotton, fabrics, leather garments, fruits and vegetables
Country Exports to Pakistan
Imports from Pakistan
Rice, furniture, cotton fiber, cement, tiles, marble, textiles, clothing, leather goods

The GCC is the one of the main sources of worker remittances, exports of labour and the last but not the least exports for Pakistan. According to the statistical data of the SBP (2007-08), Pakistan received worker remittances of $750.44 million from Saudi Arabia, followed by the UAE with $716.30 million, Kuwait $246.75 million, Oman $130.45 million, Qatar with $118.69 million, and Bahrain $100.57 million.

GCC investments in Pakistan

During the past 3-4 years the GCC investments confined only to the real estate, infrastructure development, steel, shipping and energy sectors. In addition, banking and financial sectors also saw positive developments in terms of Gulf investments in Pakistan. The largest source of FDI in Pakistan for the year ending June 2006 was the UAE with investments worth $1.42 billion, followed by the Saudi Arabia with $278 million. Now Gulf investments are witnessed in energy, power, banking, telecommunication and hotel industry etc.

Saudi Arabia Kuwait UAE
Steel & real estate projects, banking, welfare projects of health, education etc. Oil refinery, infrastructure, real estate projects, banking, oil storage facilities, water, social projects and warehouses Real estate, shipping, finance sectors, oil refinery, banking and social projects

Emerging Trends

It is expected that Pakistan’s close relations with the GCC countries will result in increased economic investments in the days to come.


1. HRM: Easy access to education and professional training for GCC citizens. There should be market-oriented promotion of technical education along with practical education system in all the GCC states. Better consultation for SMEs. Develop the link between training, education and nationalisation strategies. Creation of a culture of entrepreneurship is must for all the GCC states. Control the process of foreign workforce employment. Coordination between public and private sectors is must for rapid socio-economic development. Renewal of labour legislation system in the GCC nations may be useful in the days to come. Information sharing about the labour market issues and research studies related to manpower in the private sector would be useful for the respective GCC states.
2. Security, military cooperation: There must be common security shield for all the GCC countries. In this regard, Gulf mutual military cooperation is better than having outside security assurance.
3. Common Agenda on important regional and international issues: Within the framework of the GCC all the states must strengthen their political interaction and collaboration just for the sake of greater political mileage and power sharing in the region as well as different global forums.
4. Terrorism & Extremism: Common regional based strategy to tackle the common threat to humanity. Information sharing and appropriate mechanism to fight against this menace in the GCC.
5. Water conservation and climate change:
Both are biggest threats to human survival on earth and the GCC is not any exemption. The successful functional policies of the UAE ought to be followed. Sincere efforts must be initiated to maintain strategic balance between the nature and development in all the GCC states.
6. Socio-economic development: Promotion of inter-GCC trade and investments. More focus should be given to knowledge-based economy. Non-oil trade activities and programs must be essential for further strengthening of Gulf economies in the days to come. Promotion of SME, industrialization, service sector, trade and tourism are the keys for productivity and future survival.
7. Food security: It is an emerging socio-economic issue in all the GCC states which needs to be addressed by having FTAs especially with Pakistan.
8. Institutionalization of alternative energy sources: With the rapid scale of regional economies, all the countries need quick response to alternative/renewable energy resources. In this regards, expertise of the UAE must be consult and coordinate.

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