The Republic of Uzbekistan’s Strategic Orientation: A Research Study

Mehmood Ul Hassan Khan

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The Republic of Uzbekistan is an important country of the Central Asia. It is a modern age wonder of the post-soviet era in the Central Independent States (CIS). Right from the beginning, its visionary leadership laid down the guiding principles for achieving a dynamic civil society, vibrant media, stable and sustainable macro-economy, and active participation of political parties (multi-party system) and above all rule of the law.

In modern age of politics and civilization, society, its people, social contract, political system and the last but not the least, nature of the constitution is the main actor of national harmony, tolerance, and rapid socio-economic development. It guarantees political stability and protects the supremacy of the constitution for the best interest of its people at large. Constitution of Uzbekistan was adopted in 1992.

The Preamble

“The preamble of Uzbekistan Constitution “The people of Uzbekistan, solemnly declaring their adherence to human rights and principles of state sovereignty, being aware of their ultimate responsibility to the present and the future generations, affirming their commitment to the ideals of democracy and social justice, aspiring to a worthy life for the citizens of the republic, setting forth the task of creating a humane and democratic law-governed state adopt in the person of their plenipotentiary representatives the present Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan”. It is a complete charter of democracy, custodian of human rights, and last hope for the equality, tranquility and freedom of expression”.

The Constitution of Uzbekistan is a progressive constitution and a unique model in the CIS. It creates all the necessary conditions for the evolutionary legal development of state and civil society, formation of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and nurturing of multi-political party system and of course media and human rights. Today, their effective interaction, development, independence, and functionality increase the efficiency of democratic reforms due to which Uzbekistan’s constitution, political system and elections are being studied in Egypt, Indonesia and many countries of the world.

H.H. Islam Karimov the President of Uzbekistan delivered a key note speech on the 23rd Constitution day and stressed that the major provisions, principles and goals of the “Basic Law” constitute the foundation for an effective and refined legislative and legal base in the country. He spoke highly about the well-thought and planned long-term national drive/program of continued reforms of democratization and liberalization of the society famously known as the “Uzbek Model of Development”, which ultimately successfully transformed the country.

Basic Law

According to President it serves as a normative backbone for the achievement of such noble goals as constructing a democratic nation set out from the very first years of our independence and built on market economy, securing human rights and freedoms and legitimate interests, forming a fair civil society.

Constitution the Basis of Tremendous Achievements

The Constitution is guaranteed and accounted for as the basis of the tremendous achievements made by Uzbek people, of the peaceful and harmonious as well as prosperous life, of nurturing the young generation as healthy and comprehensively advanced individuals. After all, our Basic Law is an important guarantee for furthering such noble ends as the construction of a democratic state ruled by law, provision for the priority of human rights, peace and calmness.

Uzbekistan’s Constitution: A Binding Force

It has been binding force of national sovereignty, peace and harmony. Most recently, it has celebrated its 23rd Constitution day. It provided a solid foundation of building a new state and new society. It formed a legal and legislative basis in building the independent democratic state. It was the first giant step towards achieving socially oriented market economy. It framed a civil society in Uzbekistan. It protected the human interests, rights and freedoms. It envisioned the rule of law. All in all, it was a comprehensive platform to achieve the desired goals of socio-economic prosperity, societal cohesion, civil liberty and above all fair and free environment for the healthy competition in every filed.

Uzbekistan’s Constitution: A Forward-looking and Pragmatic

Uzbekistan’s constitution is a forward looking and pragmatic in its nature. It supported the overall socio-economic transformation and geo-political stability since its inception. It regulated the most important public relations between citizens, society and the state. It established the foundations of the constitutional system, the principles of organization of state power. It is the foundation upon which rests the legal and political system, the system of the protection of the rights, freedoms and lawful interests of individuals.

The process of institutionalization of diversified reforms started from the beginning with a holistic philosophy i.e. “Reform is not for sake of a reform but for the sake of people” which is now paying its dividends even today.

Constitution’s Multiplier Effects Details

Formation of Stable Political System & Elections: Utmost political stability is one of the main achievements of its constitution. Now there is no political vacuum, chaos and unrest in the country. Elections of Parliament and Presidency have been conducted on regular basis, in which elements of equal right of contest, transparency, independency, fairness and the last but not the least, impartiality of all the state’s regulatory bodies and “System” are strongly implemented.
Formation of Stable & Sustainable Macro-Economy:Uzbekistan’s constitution transformed its economy from agriculture to industry-oriented and from central planning of resources to free market. Now its economy is the strongest in the CIS despite emerging regional and global slowdown of economics and financial system.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights:It incorporated the fundamental provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other fundamental international instruments.
Priority of Human-beings/Humanity: It enshrines the priority of human rights, interests and freedoms over state interests and defined by its main essence to create decent living conditions for the people and proclaimed the social justice principles.
Liberalization of Legal System: It liberalized the legal system. The independence of the judiciary and specialization of courts were ensured. Afterwards, protecting human rights and freedoms were guaranteed. “16 codes and more than 600 laws have been adopted, and over 80 international human rights documents were ratified”.
Checks & Balances: It established certain checks and balances in the formation of state government and its regulations are carried on with the principles of the distribution of authority. Legislative, executive, and judiciary powers are the principles of the division of state government. Significant work is being carried to further improve the judicial law and forming independent judicial power:
Court System: Due to progressive nature and clarity of its constitution, courts are now specialized in criminal, civil, and economic cases. The mechanism of selecting qualified court personnel is created. About 75 percent of the crimes in the category of serious and extremely serious were moved to the category of crimes with less harm to society and less serious.
Categorization of Crimes: Due to holistic nature of its constitution alternative types of punishment not related to the deprivation of freedom were created. 26 punishments connected with the deprivation of freedom have been removed. The “institution of mediation” has been established on the contents of 53 crimes based on our national traditions. Moreover, the terms of initial investigation and imprisonment considerably reduced, and the terms of the hearings of the cases in courts have been determined clearly.
Financial Crime: Many European Countries have separate financial courts. In Uzbekistan when the damage of property as a result of financial crime is compensated, the punishments which are not connected with life imprisonment are applied; “The Miranda Rule” is applied to the legislation.
Abolishment of Death Penalty: From 1 January 2008 the death penalty was abolished. The courts were empowered to issue arrest warrants “institute of “Habeas Corpus”. Death penalty has been abolished on the basis tolerance and humanity instead of it the life imprisonment has been established.
New Constitutional Office: “The Concept of Further Deepening Democratic Reforms and Establishing the Civil Society” in the Country” developed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov in November 2010 opens a new stage of development of the state and society. A new law was adopted which has established a mechanism for the appointment of the Prime Minister, who should enhance the role of political parties in the government, and institution of no confidence motion to the Prime Minister.
New powers of SenateIt includes approving presidential decrees on the appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of Chamber of Auditors and a number of other senior officials.
Expanding the powers of the Oliy Majlis: In April 2014, the Oliy Majlis adopted the Law “On additions and amendments to the certain articles of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan (Articles 32, 78, 93, 98, 103 and 117).”
Source: Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Salient Features of Latest Constitutional Reforms

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(a)Extension of Parliamentary Powers:
The key factor is achieving “From the strong state to a strong civil society.” Constitutional office of Prime Minister was promulgated. He has the authority to form and abolish ministries and agencies. Previously, departments and agencies were formed and abolished under the presidential decrees. It increases the responsibility of the executive authorities on the ground in front of the representative authority. Article 103 of the Constitution is ‘supplemented with the norm, according to which currently the responsibilities of regional, district and municipal hokims (mayors) include presenting to the local councils of people’s deputies of appropriate level the reports concerning important and topical issues of socio-economic development.
(b)Enhancement of Public Activity: Article 32 of the Constitution provides that citizens of the country have the right to participate in managing the affairs of society and state through self-governance, referendums and democratic formation of government bodies. It was added with a norm establishing that now this right is also realized through the development and improvement of social control over the activities of public authorities.
(c)Constitutional Status to the Central Election System: Chapter XXIII dedicated to the electoral system introduced the rules determining the order of forming and basic principles of the CEC.
(d)Formation of Political Diversity: The Constitution established the legal framework for the formation and development of diverse institutions of civil society, free of political parties, the formation and development of a multiparty system, approved the basic principles and mechanisms of the electoral system, strengthened the guarantee of freedom of choice and will of the people, the right of everyone to vote and to be elected to representative bodies, participation of citizens in affairs of state and society. Now, the country has multi-party political system (4 political parties). In various areas of public life operate over 6,200 non-profit organizations (NGOs). They have a greater state support in the form of subsidies, grants and social orders. In addition, Uzbekistan has about 10,000 citizens’ assemblies and self-governing bodies i.e. mahallas.
(e)Embodying the ideology of national independence and the best human values: The Constitution provided the revival of national traditions, language, ancestral values and culture of our people, created the conditions for moral perfection and harmonious development of mankind. Currently, more than 130 nationalities as well as followers of 18 religious denominations live in peace and harmony in Uzbekistan.
(f)Principles of the national, multi-structured economy:
It sets the priority of private property by establishing conditions for a decisive transition from unjustified, bankrupt, centralized, command-and-distribution system to a free market economy. SMEs is now one of the main contributors of its GDPs.
(g)Free Economics Zones: Uzbekistan has many free economic zones in the different parts aiming at establishing high-tech joint ventures connected to modern transport and logistics infrastructure enabling direct exports to the markets of the CIS, South and Southeast Asia, Middle East countries. More free economic zones should be built as soon as possible.

1.Constitution’s Supportive Role to Macro-Economy

Due to positive role of its constitution, Uzbekistan is now a self-sufficient country. The most important source of sustainably high rates of economic growth is increasing volume of investment in equity capital. During the years of independence, 120 billion USD worth investments were attracted and $50 billion.

Different Sectors/Sub-Sectors (2000-2014) Increases %
GDP3.1
Per Capita Income2.6
Exports4.4 (70 percent exports are value-added products).
Nominal Wages in Comparable Prices22
Average Pension12.7
Real Income Per Capita8.4
Maternal and Child Mortality Reduction3
Average Life Expectancy Increases 66 years to 73.5
Source: Different Research Papers (2000-14).

Uzbek Economic Model

Uzbek Model is the outcome of its constitution which supported the rigorous socio-economic reforms, gradual liberalization, economic freedom with a human face, banking and financial regulatory mechanism and above all friendly governance.

Uzbek Model is the blue print of its rapid economic development, welfare networks, community development, foreign trade, investments and balanced approach for growth in every sector of national economy, production, and survival. It is based on the five principles which are given below as:

I.De-ideologization of economy
II.Ensuring rule of law
III.Recognition of regulating role of state as a major reformer
IV.Institutionalization of a strong social policy considering the special circumstances of the homeland
V.Gradual political and economic reforms.

It is among the few countries worldwide which managed to ensure for the last 5 years the GDP growth on average of 8.3 percent, and in this year it will be around 8.1 percent. Within short span of time Uzbekistan has transformed its macro-economy from a raw-material based economy to knowledge-based economy. Initially it was inflicted with a destructive monopoly of cotton production and gradually revolutionized into a dynamically growing country with a massive industrialization. Uzbekistan’s economy has grown 4.1 times, and in per capita terms it multiplied at least threefold. The public external debt of the country never reached beyond to 16 percent of the GDP, while the internal debt has a zero valuation, amid the mounting volumes of exports and gold and currency reserves. It attracted more than US$ 56 billion of FDIs. The volume of capital investments in 2013 is to make up US$14 billion, which is 23 percent of the GDP.

Now more than 300 investment projects/programs of worth US$55.4 billion are being carried. According to its official figures the government plans to direct US$15.3 billion to the oil and gas sector and US$12.1 billion to oil and gas chemistry, US$7.2 billion to transport, US$5.8 billion to the energy sector and US$4.4 billion to the mining and metallurgy industry, among other investments.

Major Macro-Economic Indicators (2011-2104)

Different Indicators %2011201220132014
GDP growth 8.38.07.06.5
Inflation (yearly average)12.812.211.410.5
Budget balance (% GDP)8.84.71.82.8
Current account balance (% GDP)5.82.73.54.0
Public debt (% GDP) 9.18.6 8.58.6
Source: ADB (2013-14)

2.Diversification of Economy

Diversification of economy is a strategic planning and its constitution plays very important role in achieving the desired goals of knowledge-based economy.

(a)Industrial Development: The authorities of Uzbekistan have identified several strategic industries as priority candidates for industrial development and they plan to provide large scale financing. Petrochemicals, higher-value added agro-processing, oil & gas exploration, ICT and mining etc.
(b)Trade regime: As part of the diversification agenda, various measures are planned to encourage exports by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) such as the establishment of an export promotion agency and the adoption of international quality standards. The authorities have plans to gradually liberalize the trade regime and to reduce transaction costs by streamlining customs procedures and reducing customs duties.
(c)Private sector: The country recognizes the need to expand the private sector through protecting private property, reducing government controls, and minimizing the costs of doing business. However, there is still no clear implementation
(d)Financial sector: The country plans to implement various measures designed to further enhance the banking system and develop non-bank financial institutions.
(e)Energy Diversification: To maintain this position and to provide the economy with resources for years ahead, it is necessary to work actively with renewable energy sources (RES). It has reserves of raw materials for the preparation of crystalline silicon, which is used in the production of photovoltaic modules components of photovoltaic systems (PVS), which are considered the most efficient in converting sunlight and heat into electricity. For the next four years, the introduction of renewable energy in ginning factories, medical and educational institutions, as well as in the objects of the Association “Uzpakhtasanoat” is planned.
(f)Commercial Diplomacy: Rigorous commercial diplomacy plays very important role. It has advantageous geographical location in the centre of the largest regional markets, proximity to biggest markets and developed transport infrastructure of Uzbekistan. Foreign companies, investing in Uzbekistan, get an access to the major growing markets of CIS countries, Asia and Europe. Agreements on Most Favoured Nations Treatment with 45 countries, including USA, Japan, China, Korea, EU countries, and Free trade agreement between CIS countries, allow enhancing competitiveness of goods, produced in Uzbekistan on external markets.
(g)Massive Industrialization: Uzbekistan has the most diversified and knowledge-based economy in the CIS. It produces wide range of automobiles and trucks, high quality agricultural machinery, chemical, textile, pharmaceutical, food products and building materials which should be further developed.

3.Formation of Dynamic Civil Society

“Civil society is a social space where the rule of law is respected and maintained; rights, freedom sand legitimate interests of people are protected; favourable conditions for personal development and self-fulfillment are created; and where there are functioning independent and stable institutions supported by people”.

Man is asocial animal who lives in a society. Civil society is a new concept in the modern politics and civility. It stands for protection of human rights, freedom of expression and above all rule of the law. The implementation of the large-scale programs on development of civil society institutions: non-state, non-profit organizations, free and independent mass media has facilitated the rise of civil society in the country due to which the NGOs are becoming an important factor in protecting democratic values, rights, freedoms and lawful interests of people, realizing by citizens of their potential, raising their social and economic activeness and legal awareness, and facilitate maintaining balance of interests in society. No it has more than six thousands NOGs. The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan’s allocations towards NOGs and other civil society institutions has grown twofold for over the last three years.

Uzbekistan has been implementing a number of organizational and legal measures aimed at the creation of conditions favourable for the formation of civil society, its development and the enhancement of its institutions since its inception.

Different Stages of Civil Society

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Different StagesDetails
Stage-I (1991-2000) It was the stage of the stage of priority reforms, transformations during the transition period and the formation of legal framework for the creation and functioning of the various institutions of civil society. The right of citizens to form trade unions, political parties and other public associations and to participate in mass movements was granted.
Article 58The state shall safeguard the rights and lawful interests of public associations and provide them with equal legal possibilities for participating in public life.
Freedom of Media & Censorship The constitution also underpins freedom of media and prohibition of censorship.
Establishment of different organizations: During this period the establishment and operation of non-government, non-probij organization (NNO), citizens’ self-governing bodies, (CSB), political parties and mass media were adopted.
Different Laws:Public associations in the Republic of Uzbekistan (1991), Trade unions, their rights and guarantees (1992), Political parties (1996), Mass media (1997), The protection of journalists’ professional activities (1997), Guarantees and freedom of access to information (1997), Nongovernmental non-profit organization (1999).
Source:Independent Institute for Monitoring of the formation of civil society

The above mentioned laws and formation of different supporting institutions played an effective role in the formation of a civil society in Uzbekistan.

Different StagesDetails
Stage II (2000-2010)
Active Democratic Renewals & Modernization It ensured the independent functioning of civil society institutions.
Main Objective It was to ensure consistent and gradual transition from a strong state, the need for which was reasonably necessary during the period of transition and statehood establishment, to a strong civil society.
Legal Acts & Community Based Initiatives It aimed at further development of civil society institutions, providing assurances regarding their activities, consolidating their efforts and resources to address issues of social importance, were implemented.
Revitalization of Political PartiesLaw in 2004 about financing of political parties was essential to the revitalization of political parties in order to strengthen their institutional capacity and financial situation. According to the law, the national system of funding of statutory activities of political parties through existing internal sources and public funds was established.
Strengthening the role of Political Parties The adoption of the Constitutional Law (2007) strengthening of the role of political parties in renewal and further democratization of state governance and country’s modernization also gave significant impetus to the development of the multi-party system in Uzbekistan.
Different Laws Different laws were promulgated for the further strengthening of the role and importance of civil society institutions. On principles and guarantees of freedom of information (2002), Public foundations (2003), Guarantees of the activities of NGO s (2007), Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Measures to assist the development of civil society in Uzbekistan (2005) were formulated and decreed.
Supporting the Institutions of Civil SocietyIt was adopted in 2008 for the Joint Resolution of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Uzbekistan, measures to strengthen support of NGO s and other civil society institutions.
Source:Independent Institute for Monitoring of the formation of civil society

The above mentioned laws were decreed and many resolutions were also passed to speed-up the formation of a civil society in Uzbekistan. Resolution the Public Fund for Support of NGO s and Other Civil Society Institutions under the Oliy Majlis, as well as the Parliamentary Commission for Administration of the Fund were also established. Parliamentary Commission is formed from the deputies of the Legislative Chamber of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis, representatives of leading and reputable NGO s, other civil society institutions, as well as the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Finance.

Moreover, during 2008–2013, in line with the decisions of the Parliamentary Commission over 28.9 billion Uzbek Soums (Uzbekistan Currency) were allocated to the country’ civil society organizations and have been utilized to support initiatives of civil society institutions through grant competitions, allocation of subsidies and singning public contracts.

Different StagesDetails
Stage III (2011-2014)
Concept of the Further Deepening of Democratic Reforms and the Formation of Civil Society in the CountryIt characterized by the development of civil society institutions in the wake of the implementation of comprehensive measures. It aimed at the most important priorities of the country’s development.
Development of Society’s Life It initiated new reforms in all spheres of society’s life, with a clear task to develop and adopt new legal and regulatory framework that would provide for greater participation of civil society institutions in state and public development.
Source:Independent Institute for Monitoring of the formation of civil society

The implementation of the above mentioned laws and decrees and programs contributed tremendously for the development of civil society institutions i.e. non-state, non-profit organizations, free and independent media which has facilitated the rise of civil society in the country due to which the NGOs are becoming an important factor in protecting democratic values, rights, freedoms and lawful interests of people, realizing by citizens of their potential, raising their social and economic activeness and legal awareness, and facilitate maintaining balance of interests in society.

4.Role and Place of NGOs

Since the early years of independence Uzbekistan has been created appropriate legal framework that aimed at creating the necessary conditions for the effective activity of NGOs.

The Article 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan speaks about the legal framework regulating the establishment and operation of public associations, protection of their rights and legitimate interests in the country.

Different Laws/Decrees Years
Public Associations1991

Non-Government Non-profit Organizations1999
Public Foundations2003
Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On measures to assist the development of civil society in Uzbekistan2005
Guarantees of the Activities of Nongovernment Non-profit Organizations2007
Joint Resolution of the Kengashs (Councils) of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of
the Oliy Majlis of Uzbekistan on the Measures for Strengthening Support for NGO s and Other Civil Society Institutions2008
Decree of the President of Uzbekistan additional measures to assist the development
of civil society in Uzbekistan2013
Ecological Control2013
Source: Independent Institute for Monitoring of the formation of civil society

Rapid Growth of NGOs

Uzbekistan dec 15

January 1, 2014 the number of registered NGO s exceeded 7800. According to the data 95 NGOs were operating in Uzbekistan as of January 1, 1991. The number reached 2,585 by 1 January 2000. Today there are 8,000 NGO s in Uzbekistan; and the number of NGO s increased by 44 percent.

uzbekistan NGOs

NGO are actively involved in the implementation of socially important projects, monitoring compliance with laws in the field of protection of human rights and freedoms, ensuring transparency of government activities via participation in the diversified fields.

Social status of NGOs is on the rise and the work of activists of civil society is publicly recognized. In particular, 159 NGO representatives were honored with state awards by the decision of the President of Uzbekistan during 2010–2013.

5.Role of Independent Media

Media is the 4th pillar of the modern state. It plays very important role in the fields of advocacy and formation of credible public policy. It also stresses the need of transparency and accountability in the functions of the government. It creates balances among the different organs of the state. Its constitution permits the existence of a free, fair and independent media in the country.

Different Laws/Decrees Years
Mass Media 1997 & 2007
Protection of Journalists’ Professional activities1997
Guarantees and Freedom of Access to Information1997
Principles and Guarantees of the Freedom of Information2003
Granting Additional Tax Benefits and Preferences for Further Development of Media2011
Openness of Activities of the Government Bodies and Governance (Bukhara and Samarkand)2013
Source: Independent Institute for Monitoring of the formation of civil society

It is evident that involvement of the media, NGOs and citizens in the said experiment demonstrated the efficacy of a new method of using the potential of civil society. The draft law modified in the light of the outcomes of the law experiment was submitted to the legislative Chamber of Parliament.

Development of Media Industry in Uzbekistan (as of January 1, 2014)

Different Media Outlets Registered Numbers
Newspapers709
Journals 289
Bulletins14
Information Agency4
Electronic Media95
TV Channels 63
Radio Channels32
News Websites 261
Source: Independent Institute for Monitoring of the formation of civil society

According to the above given data 62 percent of TV and radio broadcasting stations and websites are non-government media. Media outlets publish and broadcast in 11 languages of the ethnic groups living in Uzbekistan. In 198 newspapers (26.4 percent of all newspapers nationwide) chief editors are women.

Moreover, the number of Internet resources registered as media outlets over the past five years increased by more than 2 times. Thus, As of January 1, 2014 the number of Internet Media has reached 261, Out of which 256 (98.1 percent) are private. It shows the pace and frequency of independent media in the country which is guaranteed by its progressive constitution.

uzbekistan mdeia

uzbekistan media state

Now, in Uzbekistan media is vibrant and versatile and one of the most important tasks of media activities is protection of the interests of the public. The independent monitoring of Uzbekistan’s media indicates significantly increased role of media in identifying and highlighting topical issues at the local level, implementation of public control over the activities of state and government structures and it is all because of its constitution.

6.Constitution and Formation of Political Parties and Democratization

“Political Party is a unique form of association, one of the tasks of which is the expression of political will of citizens, i.e. a party is a collective platform for the people to exercise the basic human rights of association and freedom of expression”.

Different Laws/Decrees Years
Public Associations1991
Political Parties1996
Election to Region, District, City Kengashs (Councils) of People’s Deputies of Uzbekistan1997
election to oliy Majlis of Uzbekistan2003
Financing of Political Parties2004
Constitutional law «on the strengthening of the role of political parties in renewal and further democratization of state governance and country’s modernization
Source: Independent Institute for Monitoring of the formation of civil society

Multi-Party System and Political Pluralism

The constitution of Uzbekistan promotes the development of multi-party system and political pluralism in the country. Particularly, “parliamentary majority”, “parliamentary opposition” terms are clearly defined in the constitution. Party that gained the majority parliamentary seats in election to the legislative chamber has the right to propose a candidate of a Prime Minister or initiate their dismissal. Besides, the law envisages that consultations should be conducted with party groups in regional Kengashs (Councils) of People’s deputies during the approval of khokims of regions and the City of Tashkent.

There are four political parties in Uzbekistan which are given below as:

I.Movement of enterpreneus and businessmen liberal-democratic Party of Uzbekistan (LDPU)
II.People’s Democratic Party (PDPU)
III. Democratic Party “Milliy tiklanish” (DP)
IV.Social-democratic Party “Adolat” (SDP)

uzbeksitan parties

The constitution of Uzbekistan supported the further strengthening of multi-party system which is one of the most important conditions for the formation of democratic parliamentarism in the country.

The most important strategy of policy reform, implementing stage by stage after the proclamation of independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a democratic modernization and the creation of a modern institutions of democratic parliamentarism. One of the key priorities in this task is the development of a multiparty political system.

The constitutional rights of citizens to associate in political parties and the right of political parties to participate in the formation of state power have been further developed in the Law “strengthening the role of political parties in renewal and further democratization of state governance and modernization of the country” and the Law “On Political Parties”.

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The above mentioned constitutional laws and decrees grant the party a wide range of rights and powers.

Political Parties Rights Details
Program Goals and ObjectivesThrough their representatives in elected bodies at all levels
Formation of Bodies of State PowerParticipation and control over their activities
Flow of Information free dissemination of information about its activities
Propaganda Ideas, goals and solutions etc.
Protection of Rights State protection and legitimate interests of political parties
Statutory Goals and ObjectivesConstitution guaranteed the creation of equal legal opportunities for the fulfillment their goals.
Source: Different Research Papers

The Law of “Financing of Political Parties” was adopted in 2004 which provided a system of public financing of political parties in elections. Since 2005, the political parties created their own faction in the Legislative chamber of the Oliy Majlis annually receive state funding for their activities. Now, electoral system, which meets generally, accepted norms and principles of free and fair elections in the country.

Elections of Deputies of the Legislative Chamber

Elections of deputies of the Legislative chamber and the local Kengashes national deputies are now conducted on a multiparty basis. Candidates and nominated their political parties are guaranteed equal conditions for campaigning and access to the media.

Elements of Transparency and Fair-Play

Important strengthening rights of political parties associated with their participation in the elections are the presence of observers from political parties that nominated candidates, at all events on preparation and conduct of elections, and the participation of their authorized representatives in the counting of votes at polling stations.

Concept of Further Deepening Democratic Reforms and Formation of Civil Society

In accordance with the “Concept of further deepening democratic reforms and formation of civil society in the country” in 2012, the electoral law was introduced a number of changes aimed at further democratization of the electoral processes. It covered procedural mechanisms of election campaign in the form of disseminating information about the program and the pre-election platform of the political party with an appeal to vote for its candidates have been improved in Uzbekistan.

Councils of People’s Deputies (2014)

Since 2014 the Constitution protects the duty of the khokims of regions, districts and cities to represent to the Councils of people’s deputies reports on important and topical issues of socio-economic development of respective territories. This constitutional provision also contributed to the growth of the activity of the parties. For the first 9 months of 2014 more than 200 reports of the heads and officials of government bodies were presented. This figure is significantly higher than 2013.

Further Enhancing the Role and Responsibility of Parties

During 2014, the Republic of Uzbekistan promulgated a new law “Amendments and additions to certain articles of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan” (articles 32, 78, 93, 98, 103 and 117)” which was initiated in accordance with the legislative initiatives of the President of Uzbekistan also contributed to further enhancing the role and responsibility of parties. It further regulated the activities of political parties objectively contributed to increase the interest of the parties in a meaningful participation in the forthcoming elections. The said legislation stressed the political parties to achieve goals. It also created sociological and methodological basis for determining program priorities of parties in the coming period of their activities and the development of new election platforms.

It is evident that many laws, decrees and reforms and its implementation in true spirits has streamlined the positive and productive role of the political parties in defining the concrete priorities of socio-political and economic development and their participation in tackling the strategic tasks of reforms and modernization of the country must become the most important factor of progressive democratic changes.

Concluding Remarks

Uzbekistan’s constitution reflects the collective political wisdom of its leaders and people alike. It upholds the elements of fair play, equal rights and tranquility in the society. It promotes social justice and democracy in the country. It permits the formation of political parties and allows a modern political culture and pluralism in the country. It guarantees the protection of basic human rights to its people.

It also guarantees freedom of the press and association and the last but not the least, rights of the minorities in the country. It is the basis for stable and sustained development of the country on the path of democratic development, the implementation of the principle ‘From a Strong State to a Strong Civil Society.

The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan is a “strategic asset” which is the real custodian of its stable and sustainable socio-economic development. It is the icon of human freedom. It provides an ideal platform to resolve issues and conflicts as well. It nurtures its politics and tames it for the betterment of its people at large. Now, politics stand for stands for delivery, service and above all productivity instead of destruction, sabotage and procession in Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan’s constitution thus, can be safely said to be a social contract between the government and its people. The primary function of a constitution is to lay out the basic structure of the government according to which the people are to be governed. It is the constitution of a country, which establishes the three main organs of the government, namely, the legislature, executive and judiciary and Uzbekistan’s constitution has already fulfilled its obligations in this regard.

Due to its progressive constitution the Republic of Uzbekistan is now the role model of socio-economic prosperity. It has already achieved remarkable goals which has made it one of the more stable, strong and sustainable economy in the world.

The concept of intensification of democratic reforms and formation of civil society in the Country contribute as a beginning of a new stage in the perfection of nation building, legal-normative system and electoral legislation in Uzbekistan.

Ours the age of globalization 3 which stands of democracy, free market economy, where knowledge based economy, good governance, interfaith dialogue, result oriented strategies, respect for humanity and international law has been incorporated in Uzbekistan’s constitution.
Constitution of Uzbekistan laid down the principles to promote socio-economic development in the country. Since its independence it initiated various economic programmes as well as macro and micro-economic policies which have resulted in a strong and viable economic system.
In Uzbekistan, the market allows free and fair competition under a free market mechanism and continuity of economic policies. The government tries to lessen the burden of taxes on low-income groups and poor people. It spreads a vast network of SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) and micro-credit institutions. It also guarantees social security to all its citizens. The government policies help people to save and invest. In return, these savings are beneficial for many government projects.
To achieve the desired goals of macro-economy, Uzbekistan’s government initiated a multi-pronged strategy. It secured sustainable economic growth through increased employment opportunities and through improved income generation capacity of its people. It encouraged private investments by introducing many meaningful incentives and invested in important sectors. It introduced and followed a holistic approach to achieve comprehensive regional development and reduced societal and regional disparities throughout the country. Social development remained one of the main focuses of the government which ultimately increased the quality of life and encouraged gender equality. It rigorously institutionalised structural reforms which increased the economy’s competitiveness in the region. The constant policy of liberalisation supported the national economy and strengthened the banking and financial sector too.
Uzbekistan’s government adopted a result-oriented privatisation policy which enhanced its macro-economy. It did not offer its strategic assets in the privatisation process and followed the ancient philosophy of survival that promotes the principle of keeping your old assets until you have new ones. In Pakistan, irrational and hasty privatisation has badly damaged its national priorities and it is still suffering from the misdeeds of the privatisation drive.
The stability and sustainability of the macro-economy of Uzbekistan is derived from the philosophy that the economic is superior to politics: they view the state as the major reformer and guarantor of economic transformation as well as the supremacy of law as guaranteed by its progressive constitution.
Moreover, Uzbekistan has its own unique workable system of domestic investments. The government has instructed all the corporations, factories, institutions and other related organs to make compulsory investments out of their profits on regular bases. This system is now paying the dividends. The vast network of small and medium industries and industrial projects are being established on the public-private partnership basis. In Pakistan, the business tycoons are heavily involved in capital flight and are not ready to reinvest in the country.
The declining GDP ratios, decreasing export percentages, slowdown of social development networks, bank defaults/insolvencies, massive unemployment levels, increasing poverty incidents, hunger and above all, conversion of trade surpluses into huge trade and budgetary deficits in so many countries around the globe indicate that the world is in search of a new economic growth model. The success of Uzbekistan’s economic model paves the way for many other developing countries to cope with the ongoing global economic recession and financial crunch.
Now, the process of politicization and democratization is on right path. It is hoped that it would pay its dividends more in the days to come. Political stability is must for achieving high rates of socio-economic prosperity and through its rigorous politicization and democratization, Uzbekistan will definitely among the most advanced countries in the world in the days to come and upcoming Parliament elections 2014 would be strategic event in the national history of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The Republic of Uzbekistan, land of lights, spiritual realities, human wisdom and ancient civilization has successfully surpassed all the hardships and achieved high standards of economic growth, social development, massive political participation, democratization, vibrant media, civil society, political parties in the country is solely guaranteed by its constitution.

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