Historical chart of Pakistan rupee exchange rate vs US dollar 70

Following is the chart of rupee exchange rates against US dollar. It is interesting to see that between 2001 and 2007, the exchange rate remained almost the same but with the start of rise in oil prices and lawyers movement in Pakistan, the rupee totally collapsed.

In my personnel opinion, the major contributory factor in damaging the Pakistan economy is the lawyer’s movement otherwise, we would have managed to cope with the high oil prices and world economic crisis.

In coming days and months, a lot of money inflow is expected but I am afraid, the financial mismanagement will eat up all those resources as well.

Click here for rupee exchange rates vs US dollar from 1948 to 2009

Click here for rupee exchange rates vs US dollar from May 2008 to December 2017

Inter bank and open market rates from March 2018 onward

20-Mar-2018 US$ 110.30 110.70 114.80 115.20
21-Mar-2018 US$ 114 114.20 115.10 115.20
26-Mar-2018 US$ 114.40 115.40 114.50 115.50
30-Mar-2018 US$ 115.48 115.51 115.80 116.30
2-Apr-2018 US$ 115.49 115.57 116.00 116.30
13-Apr-2018 US$ 115.61 115.62 116.60 116.90
19-Apr-2018 US$ 115.50 115.70 117.40 117.70
23-Apr-2018 US$ 115.50 115.70 118.00 118.30
25-Apr-2018 US$ 115.50 115.70 118.70 118.40
23-May-2018 US$ 115.26 115.70 118.10 117.70
31-May-2016 US$ 115.61 115.62 119.30 118.80
11-Jun-2018 US$ 119.50 120.00 119.50 121.00
12-Jun-2018 US$ 119.75 120.25 121.00 122.00
14-Jun-2018 US$ 121.00 121.50 122.50 123.50
20-Jun-2018 US$ 121.30 121.50 123.50 124.50
24-Jun-2018 US$ 121.52 121.55 124.00 124.50
2-July-2018 US$ 121.50 121.52 124.50 125.00
16-July-2018 US$ 127.50 128.50 128.50 129.00
20-July-2018 US$ 128.49 128.51 130.00 130.50
28-July-2018 US$ 127.80 127.90 126.50 127.50
30-July-2018 US$ 124.25 124.75 121.00 122.00
3-Aug-2018 US$ 124.05 124.10 123.00 124.00
15-Aug-2018 US$ 123.90 124.10 121.70 122.50
27-Aug-2018 US$ 124.10 124.30 123.50 124.50
5-Sep-2018 US$ 124.10 124.30 124.20 125.00
28-Sep-2018 US$ 124.10 124.30 125.80 126.30
2-Oct-2018 US$ 124.10 124.30 127.50 128.00
9-Oct-2018 US$ 135.20 136.50 133.25 134.50
10-Oct-2018 US$ 133.70 133.80 134.00 135.00
12-Oct-2018 US$ 131.00 132.00 131.50 132.50
18-Oct-2018 US$ 133.50 133.70 135.04 135.89
24-OCT-2018 US$ 131.00 132.00 132.50 133.00
15-Nov-2018 US$ 133.99 134.00 134.30 134.70
30-Nov-2018 US$ 138.75 139.25 134.90 135.40
03-Dec-2018 US$ 137.00 138.00 137.00 138.00
05-Dec-2018 US$ 137.79 137.81 138.00 138.80
13-Dec-2018 US$ 138.89 138.91 139.00 139.50
7-Jan-2019 US$ 138.90 138.94 138.80 139.30
14-Jan-2019 US$ 138.93 138.95 138.60 139.20
16-Jan-2019 US$ 138.86 138.91 138.80 139.20
22-Jan-2019 US$ 138.92 138.94 138.60 139.30
12-Feb-2019 US$ 138.92 139.02 138.60 139.10
08-Mar-2019 US$ 138.54 138.64 138.50 139.00
22-Mar-2019 US$ 140.80 141.30 140.00 141.00
25-Mar-2019 US$ 140.80 141.30 139.50 140.50
27-Mar-2019 US$ 140.30 140.40 140.50 141.00
30-Mar-2019 US$ 140.80 141.00 141.30 142.30
1-Apr-2019 US$    140.87 140.97   142.00  142.70  
2-Apr-2019   US$   140.89 140.91  142.50  142.70
3-Apr-2019 US$    141.41   141.46 142.50 143.00
4-Apr-2019   US$   141.40   141.50 142.50 143.00 
8-Apr-2019 US$    141.37   141.47 142.50 142.80  
18-Apr-2019    US$ 141.41    141.51 141.50  142.00  
2-May-2019   US$     141.39   141.40 141.70 142.20  
4-May-2019   US$ 141.39 141.40  141.30 141.80
8-May-2019   US$ 141.32 141.42 141.20 141.70
13-May-2019   US$ 141.40 141.50 143.00 143.50
16-May-2019   US$ 147.00   147.50 146.00  147.50  
17-May-2019   US$ 147.75 148.25 148.50 149.50
18-May-2019 US$ 149.50 150.00
20-May-2019  US$  150.50151.50150.00  150.90  
21-May-2019US$151.75  152.25152.00153.50
22-May-2019US$  151.90152.30  152.00  153.00  
23-May-2019US$  151.45151.95  151.80  152.50  
24-May-2019  US$ 150.75  150.90   151.00   151.50  
25-May-2019  US$  –     –150.00  151.00  
DATEInterbankbuyInterbank-sell Open-Buy Open-sell
29-May-2019149.63  150.22  149.00150.00  
30-May-2019  148.00  148.50  148.50 149.50 
31-May-2019  147.85148.15  147.50148.50
3-June-2019148.60  148.90147.80  148.80  
10-June-2019  150.10  150.40  149.50  150.50  
11-June-2019  151.30  151.60  151.00  152.00  
12-June-2019  151.65  151.95  151.30  152.00  
13-June-2019  153.50   154.00   152.50  153.50  
14-June-2015   156.00  156.80  156.00   157.50  
17-June-2019  157.00  157.30  155.50  156.50  
19-June-2019  156.96  157.36  155.50  156.50  
21-June-2019  156.93  157.13  155.70  156.70  
24-June-2019  156.97  157.17156.00156.70  
26-June-2019  163.50  164.00  162.00  163.00  
27-June-2019  163.70  164.20  162.50  163.50  
28-June-2019  159.50  160.00  159.50  161.00  
3-July-2019  157.03   157.63  156.50  157.50  
4-July-2019  156.50  157.00  156.00  157.00  

Leave a Reply to MASOOD SIPRA Cancel reply

70 thoughts on “Historical chart of Pakistan rupee exchange rate vs US dollar

  • Mairaj Alam

    You argument is weak. Musharraf artificially inflated the PRK value and held it for years. After his departure the market correction took place. You will see this will happen again once current Nawaz Sharif government is ousted.

  • Khalil

    Allah kary wo munafiq musharraf aagha khani kuttay ki mot nanga mary. Kutty or khinzeer us ko nanga noch noch kr khay’n.
    Musharraf ka anjam boht bura hoga. Us ki aakhirat tabah o barbad ho. Aap musharraf ki himayat na kijye warna aap k emaan ko b shak ha.

  • mogamboo

    thinking of transferring us dollars to pakistan lets say a million usd at todays exc rate of 100 pkr per usd quite not sure if keeping in a bank at interest rate of 6% (open daily profit account) after converting usd to pkr wud be a good decision or not well i must say i am really bad in doin profit maths wat do u all think shd be done hold on to dollars at no interest or convert into pkr wid 6 % interest thnx

    • Javed

      Rahim Bhabi this from Akbar is a naked cheating alurment. Please delete it fromt the site immediately before someone gets frauded.

  • Faisal Bashir

    All of you just sit back and think for some seconds !

    This page was providing dollar vs rupee trend for last 10 years and you all folks start fighting I dont know on what point . . .

    This is the just real face of “Great Pakistani Nation” where 20 people cant agree on 1 point !

    I am ashamed to see all this because I am Pakistani too . . .

  • mona

    dear raheem
    A O A
    thanks you can provide a lot of information about different things like history and other but kindly you can provide me 2010_12 budget or the comparision between the previous budget
    please i shall be very thankfull
    because i need it >>>>.

  • Asad Aman

    Dear Abdul Raheem
    Thanks, I have got information about Dollar rate history against Pak Rupee but i need Dollar rates history from 1960 to 2011 with monthly change schedule in Pak Rupee. Can you provide me i shall be very thankful to you.

    Asad Aman

  • Shafiq

    We divided muslims as Pakistanis, Indians, Arabs and others. The solution to the “whole” problem is what Iqbal stated from Quran beautifully.

    فرد قائم ربط ملت سے، تنہا کچھ ہے نہیں
    موج ہے دریا میں، اور بیرون دریا کچھ نہیں

    The individual remains steadfast only
    With, the bond of community;
    Alone he is nowhere Like a wave in the ocean, But outside nothing.

    Until then, God bless us.

  • Obaid


    I need Pak rupee exchange rate to US Dollar from Jan 2000 to Dec 2004 (month wise for every year) and also need Pak exports in US Dollar (in million) from Jan 2000 to Dec 2004 (month wise for every year).

    Please email this data to me at your earliest. As have to finish my report on Pakistan Economy Trend in last decade.

    Looking forward for your support and cooperation.


    Kind regard

  • Afgahnistan

    You seem to be living not only in ??????????????? Paradise but also seem to be away……………………………from Logic. What MQM did with you?………………… Ask your self.

  • Afgahnistan

    Mr Azmat Elahi,
    Your comments are full of statements with out any support. MQM was funded by Your Favorite Zia Ul Haq. Can you support your statements with tangible data?
    You seem to be another One MR KNOW ALL. MR RIGHT.

  • attiya

    thanks for uploading this info…i have a question, though very innocent, should we invest in buying dollar these days…? considering the economic conditions of the country…do u think that it will give profit in the longer run ??

    • amna hafeez

      i am trying to decide also – in pakistan the sscs give 10percent return annually, while the return in bank deposits for usd is very low about 1% only – this suggests we shd invest in pakistan rupee which was fine as depreciation of the rupee against the usd was also just 2-3% during last few years. However, with the depreciation now substantially higher during 2012 and 2013 at 11-15% the ssc return 10% becomes negative

      It would appear to thus be better to invest in say the uae government bonds scheme which offers stepped up returns upto 4% p.a. over a 3 year period – these are guaranteed returns and you can withdraw the profit quarterly – if the capital gains from rupee depreciation continue at the same rate 10-15% or if these actually become higher !! but not sure whether to expect the rupee depreciation to continue in next 3 years for example – could the weakness of the US economy and thus of the USD actually mean that the rupee depreciation could improve ????????????? this could mean that we should trust our guaranteed pak rupee 10% returns !!

      • Raheem Post author

        To the best of my knowledge, devaluation rate of stable currencies i.e. US Dollar or UAE Dirham will not be less than 3% as well. Investment in Pakistan National Savings is quiet safe, devaluation rate of Pakistan Rupee is always little less than the profit offered by these schemes.

  • salma

    basically if u talk about history then it will be more helpful if you start from the years 70s-2010 and also should mention exchange rates prevailing in those years.

  • Azmet Elahi Sayed


  • Uzbekistan Tour Operator

    وَاِنْ تُطِعْ اَکْثَرَ مَنْ فِی الْاَرْضِ یُضِلُّوْکَ عَنْ سَبِیْلِ اللّٰہِ (الانعام : 116) کہ اگر تم محض اکثریت کو معیار اطاعت قرار دے لو گے تو صحیح راستے سے بھٹک جاؤ گے۔
    I am not one of those and had never faith in Democracy and always wanted that a sincere Team of Patriots should take over the country and Guide the nation to prosperity. Thank you President Musharaf! He did it. But our LION then gave in to pressures which I do understand and then all the Dogs started Barking. I have a question to all the supporters of Goof Sharif, naturally badly brought up, and writing abusive comments against the best leader in 60 years of Pakistan History. Why they support the sytem which is clearly against the instructions of Quran? If the Stupids will elect the Goof Sharif then will that be according to Islamic Shariah?

  • Free 5800XM Games

    What do you think who is not Dictator? Your Father? You? Your Nazim? Your MNA? MPA? YOUR BOSS? NAWAZ SHARIF (YOUR HERO)? Whom you will blame for every thing when he will get the absolute power? Zardari? Who can be called all the names Like Cheat, Fraud, But not Dictator because of the circumstances and his previous reputation Though he aspires to be so? So be little more intelligent and Stop Finding Angels on this earth. Angels only live in the heavens. Stop Making people evil. You are the product of Modern Mass Media manipulation naturally financed by the vested interest

  • Hassan

    Thank you for informative post. Dear Haroon I have one request please don’t be the part of differentiation propaganda that you’re punjabi and i m sindi we should proud to be Pakistan. 🙂

  • Zahid Khan Khosa

    Worst times have arrived therefore Mr. 10% (ten percent) have become leaders of our beloved country. I will not go into the details how corrupt our leaders are. Along with corruption they don’t care if poor people live or die. Zardari and his government have sold our country for few dollars and now our national interests are also on sale by him. When I think about the situation in Pakistan my heart really goes, looking at the necessity which Pakistani nation does not have, such as Sugar, Wheat flour, Electricity, Gas, jobs, clean drinking water and there is huge list of other necessities which Pakistani nation does not enjoy. However leaders of Pakistan have turned a blind eye to the problems of poor people. I always wonder that why Pakistan does not utilizes 18 billion people and produce various items which can later be sold in international market such as Airplanes, Fast Trains, Weapon technology and various other items. Leaders of Pakistan have pledged to neglect this nation and they are extremely busy filling their own pockets with stolen poor people’s money. I pray to God that the injustice vanishes soon and we see a real and authentic leader who can lead us through prosperity and happiness. I believe the leaders of Pakistan have failed to look after their country and they have failed to show care. We as a nation should unite together and raise against the ignorance we face today. Thank you

  • John

    “Democracy is not the way”
    I read on here all your comments, and im lost for what to say.
    Over the last 200 or so odd years, you could say the europeans have done a outstanding job of eliminating what was , (lets say left of islam)
    Weather you goto school or madrasa etc, system is preatty twisted, what principles are you teaching, learning??? even if you call it islamic school, but the principles being taught dont seem much to follow your islamic religion,
    This is not easy to understand, so here a tip of the iceberg example, if you speak a totally different languages you may just understand it,
    so here it goes,
    If your in pakistan say you speak urdu, so you communicate in urdu , think in urdu, ( important your thinking in urdu)
    Now if your in uk, usa etc you speak and think in english you will think in english and so on,
    Hence if we now try to understand this concept religion is the same, when you need to do something you think what does my religion say about the matter under disscusion etc,
    I could wright a book on the subject no do we have space or time here togo into it here,
    But as you try to see, this is not what happens when it comes to islam, what does happen is that, people do either what they want, feel what they want to do, what there mind tells them, (with the little knowledge they have) follow people simply because of greed, or there scared of them , or some what ever agenda they have,
    How many of us actually take the time to see what islam says on the subject of what where about to do,
    We have gone so far away from understanding our own religion , that all we do know is totally agaisnt what islam says, we sit around thinking we know it all, sit around all day backbiting joking and telling tales, etc, we talk as if we know about everything, is that not so???
    you could say the job has been well done of just about wipping the knowledge of islam from us,
    But all is not lost, why , well because you dont have to take a donkey any more to get one hadith from baghdad, no, no, no, my friends, the answers are in the Quran and in the Hadiths,
    Before you all start saying there are so many sects in islam well, this was already foretold,
    So instead of listening to your imams there is no harm in you picking up the good book and reading it with translation so you understand it, then you read it again and again until you understand because this is not something you can eat on the first day and get to now it,
    And to those of you imams or not imams who think suicide are allowed, they are not allowed in islam , it makes no differnt if you kill yourself with a knife, or sword, or a car or any other form of item, suicide in islam not allowed, let me say it again not allowed, why becuase its your hand and you cannot take your own life,
    And i would point out one surah, please go and read surah, alhumazah, its a samll surah, but a very strong one at that, it is about backbiting, about talking about people behind there backs, and this i must say goes on alot, again i could wright a book on this surah, but you can just read the explanation and translation from “IBIN thamiyah” he was a knowlegdable scholar,
    And now may Allah (swt) forgive me for saying anything which i may have said about islam, mistankly,
    And may Allah (swt)guide us all to the true path , the path of the rightly guided caliphs and the companions of the prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

  • Hassan

    We need to learn how to love, not to hate. Suicide bombings and lawer movement damage our economy, we accept or not that is other thing but reality is reality.We have to honestly find our weeknesses and rectify otherwise we shall not be able to survive as a nation.We need educate our people so that they do not accept corrupt politicians and generals.

  • Well-Wisher

    tx for the chart 🙂

    but reviews of so-called US literate made me reply ..

    i work in US based company .. and basically provide support .. 70% of australian based clients cancelled their accounts with us because Australian dollars was 40% devalued ..
    that is probably because of lawyer movement too ..
    what a lame assumptions people had …

    and no Haroon .. its people like you who are the problem ..
    what would your US education or Literature justify if their CJ is dragged on road and house arrested ?
    get off their US asses for a while

    Tanweer was right on his judgement ..
    if dollar would have been stable on strong economic infrastructure instead of some aids, privatization and pimping out our citizens .. it wouldnt have devalued ..

    just to remind you if people forgot .. stock exchange dropped from 16000 to 7000 in 2 days … that is enough to prove my point …

    ps: i hate every polititian or leader pakistan had .. still hate the musharraf most

    • Haroon

      @Well-Wisher, I am forced to clear some issues and ASSUMPTIONS OF WELL WISHER.
      I was never educated or worked in USA on the contrary I was educated in PECHS COLLEGE Karachi, National College Karachi and Got my Masters from Punjab University in Economics.
      In our Nation we have millions of well wishers and they have one thing in common that they always ASSUME(Inspite of any Experience or back ground Knowledge). They always give extreme statements with out any supporting materials and stand by their statements inspite of all the logic.
      Our KNOW EVERY THING attitude is destroying our children future. Attaat (to obey) is part of our Religion but we talk about rights and forget the basic principle of Citizenship. Our Sitting Leader is always the worst person and we are always the angel. Every Leader and their Present day ANGEL NAWAZ SHARIF was blamed by such MR RIGHTS. To prosper every nation must be literate, Skilled, and Productive. Nation must have the consensus on its vision. But our thinking is changing everyday like Mob. Because we are a mob and do not act like a nation.They are all the off springs of efforts of our enemies who do not want to see a stable, prosperous Pakistan. They are actually working against them. Beggars can not be the Choosers. During their ANGELS Tenure one Gujranwala Boy was Transported to Germany by Their Angels Government Inspite of Court Orders For DISGRACING THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD PBUH. I mean to say that economically dependent nations are not politically Independent. For Economic Prosperity we need stability and the biggest enemies of Stability are These MR KNOW ALL and MR ALWAYS RIGHT.

  • Haroon

    Regarding Mr Tanweer’s 7th July Post:
    Has Mr Tanweer Ever Been to USA, What type of Education he had or what Literature he read to give such conclusive statements or what type of international interaction or policy experiences he had? Such thinking and people are our biggest problem and as long as they think as majority of nation think and If people of IQ level of Mr Sharif have followers then God Bless Pakistan.

  • Haroon

    As is clear from every Pakistani has become poor in Dollar Term by 40% From the Date of Iftikhar’s Personal adventure and the fall back originating because of the event (Lawyers Movement So called. This is the payment which every body has paid but people still are not ready to analyse. What they have done to themselves. Lal masjid, ATTA, Bugti Death, And Iftikhars Episode. Public was in all cases against Musharaf but actually they were not opposing Musharaf they were opposing their own children’s future.
    We always heard the snake eats its own eggs. What the Pakistani nation has done and the snake does is no different.

  • momin

    tanweer the point you just brought up is right on the dot, but also very demoralizing in its principal. the more this country tries to appease those trying to take advantage of it, the more the outer exchange rate seems to shine in Pakistan’s favor – when in actuality, it is merely a temporary diversion for other countries to succeed in having another ally to get their self-sufficing needs met.

    im currently in pakistan on vacation, and i can’t help but feel guilty taking advantage of this ridiculous exchange rate from dollars to rupees. but on the other side, it makes living in this terrible heat just a bit easier… 🙂

  • Tanweer

    One indicator of democracy and dictatorship in Pakistan is the variation of dollar rate. If you see that the currency is stable, I bet we are under a dictator rule, because we are under a lot of benefits from the US for facilitating in a lot of kickbacks. May be we would be improving our relation with Israel, or assisting the NATO forces in the US war on terror.
    The variation in dollar during the Nawaz regime was the impact of tests we performed on 28 May 1998. Nawaz would have thought it would be better to do the tests and get cursed then being cursed by not doing the tests.

    • Haroon

      @Tanweer, What is Dictatorship? To my understanding when One Person starts taking Decisions on his own. What do you think who is not Dictator? Your Father? You? Your Nazim? Your MNA? MPA? YOUR BOSS? NAWAZ SHARIF (YOUR HERO)? Whom you will blame for every thing when he will get the absolute power? Zardari? Who can be called all the names Like Cheat, Fraud, But not Dictator because of the circumstances and his previous reputation Though he aspires to be so? So be little more intelligent and Stop Finding Angels on this earth. Angels only live in the heavens. Stop Making people evil. You are the product of Modern Mass Media manipulation naturally financed by the vested interest and commercial tycoons. What do you think Hamid Mirs, Shahid Massoods, Kamran Khans and thousands of other DICTATORS and law Violators were getting in 1999 and what benefits they are getting now? Just sit, Think, and you will your self have all the answers. I Hope you will not mind and read it with understanding and not emotions

  • adnan

    You’ve not shown the trends of those years before 1999. Have you forgot that period during which our currency was devalued by our Prime Minister, Mr. Nawaz sharif and the dollar went up from 35 to 60 rupees?????? at that time, there was no lawyer movement, nothing at all, but one stupid finance minister Mr. Ishaq Dar who caused all this and Nawaz Sharif was the one approving this decision of him.

    • Haroon

      @adnan, Thank you Adnan for pointing out a forgotten episode. Nation has very poor memory and todays devil after some time becomes an angel. Pakistani nation has become poor by 40% (Devaluation of Currency from 60 to 84 Now Because of the lawyers movement).
      Decision of Fraud Justice Iftikhar has costed Pakistan bad Reputation in the foreign Investment but now Steel Mill Losses of 32 Arab Rupees should be paid by Fraud Justice.
      An Illiterate nation and Emotional Mob will never understand Logic & Reasons. For reasoning a person must have the knowledge and the patient to listen and understand. All those stupid So called Punjabi Conservatives promoting Nawaz Sharif as the new Savior will very soon start blaming him for every thing. The time will move on. Other nations will achieve prosperity and Pakistani Mob will keep on blaming others for their Own Mistakes. Thank you and I do Understand your feelings

  • Raheem Post author

    Athar sahib
    Thanks for the encouraging words.My only aim to run this website is to provide useful information to Pakistani friends.Any suggestions/recommendations from friends to make the website more informative and useful are very much welcomed.

    • Mohsin

      General Musharaf really manage the economy well, from forex reserves of about 500 Million Dollars to 16 billion Dollars and Foreign debt from 40 Billion dollars to 36 Billion Dollars i.e. -4 Billion Dollar in his era wasrmarkable achievement and stable Dollar @ 60 approximately. I pray He comes again and again and help pakistan Economy.

      • nadeem

        the only mistake done by mr. musharraf was that he opened the private channels, the 2 parties who says they r champion of democracy they did not give permission to open private channels in theis 11 years era & mostly all private channels belong to nawaz sharee or with ppp the 2nd thing which go against the musharraf was his language , he speaks the language which is his mother tounge as well as national language

      • Usama Bin Akram

        1st Time $ Price going to Decrease In Pakistan……. In the duration of Gen…. dollar Increase 50 to 62~63 …… you think 13 Rupee shows stability???? In Just 11 month KSC business Increase aprx 47billion $ to 70 billion $………….23billion $ a huge amount …. KSC 100 index…19900 to 29000……… can you imagine its change more than of 5 years of PPP……

      • Eagle

        Ameen. I agree He is brave and honest person. He is knowledgeable and realistic personality but unfortunately the uneducated Pakistani nation can not understand there own benefit.

    • Amir

      Exchange rate always remains a issue in our country . what we need is to see what are the reasons causing rapid fluctuation in exchange rate in the country. The following are the main factor influence the exchange rate.
      1- interest rate 2-Political stability 3- Economic stability 4- Fiscal and Monetary Policy

      Interest rate is one of the factor which plays vital role in the demand and supply of the foreign exchange. International investor incline to invest in the country where rate of interest is high , as such in the prevailing scenario of declining interest rate inflow of direct investment declining leading to shortage of supply of exchange in Pakistan resulting to which rupee value decreasing day by day.

      • jaffar

        I would say yes and no to the interest argument. I beleive its more to do with the politically instability and law and order, that effects foreign investment and investors confidence, at this movement there is more outflow of foreign currency out of the country as there is no goverment who is willing to solve peoples problem. Unless we see this as a serious situation and takes things in our hand before its too late to regret. Strong measures to take to overhaul the whole machinery, the deep rooted corruption needs to be be eradicated, rule of law to be restored, why the industries are moving out of the country or the existing ones are getting closed, because of no infrastructure, power breakdowns, kidnappings, extortion and the list goes on, who is responsible offcourse first the govt if they are corrupt then the armed forces need to intervene and yes if they are corrupt too then God helps the country. The budget needs to be balanced not much emphasises on putting more money on defence expenditure rather then focus on education, universities, hospitals, power etc. Revenue generation measure to enforce Tax revenue system needs to be revisited. Relationship with the west needs some work to be done and there are many other challenges, Pakistan has bunch of problems that needs to be address yes the growing number of population. I would say Musharaf era was a golden ear and by far the best even though how much people criticize now the opportunity seems to have been lost for ever, the currenty was stable now its on a free fall, God helps Pakistan.