The great contribution of Uzbek ancestors to the development of world civilization is known to the whole world today. They are great scientists, philosophers, thinkers, religious leaders, commandors and rulers too. They influenced the world by their genuinely inbuilt qualities of knowledge, wisdom, observation, administration and message. Few are given below as
Muhammad Al-Khorazmi (780-863) the greatest mathematician of ancient time, the founder of Algebra, the pioneer of algorithm and decimal system of numeration. On the basis of Al-Khorazmi’s algorithm a new science appeared – cybernetics, and it is impossible to develop other sciences without the cybernetics.
Akhmad Al-Farghoni (798-861) the astronomer, mathematician and geographer. His works “The Principles of Astronomy” brought him fame throughout the world. He drew up a world map where he showed the continents and water basins and indicated azimuths. Now the map is being preserved in trhe state library of Genoa in Italy. Al-Farghoni proved by exact facts that the Earth has the form of a globe. In Cordoba (Spain), he organised a scientific center and laid the foundation for the University. He was known in the East by the name Alfraganus. The 1200th anniversary of his birthday was mcelebrated in 1998, under the auspices of UNESCO.
Imam Al-Bukhari (810-870) the well known scientist in the Islamic religion, theologian. His famous work is “Al-Jome as–Sakhikh” is reckoned the second holy book after the Koran in the Muslim world.
Imam Abu Mansur Al-Moturidi (870-944) the great thinker of the Muslim world, the founder of Islamic theology and the Maturidiya school of Sunni doctrine.
Abu Nasr Muhammad Al-Farabi (872-950) the philosopher, mathematician and explorer of music. In XII-XIII centuries many of his works were translated into Latin, Ancient Hebrew, and Persian languages. Later it was translated into the languages of other peoples of the world. In addition to the fact that he was the teacher of Avicenna and well-known commentator on Aristotle’s works, he was also the author of many books on philosophy and politics. He wrote comments on Plato’s “Laws”, and, in the sphere of philosophy, he was reckoned as the second scientist after Aristotle. As a token of recognition of his merits he was titled as “The Second Teacher”.
Abu Reikhan Muhammad ibn Akhmad Al-Beruni (973-1048-1051) the Medieval scientist with encyclopedic knowledge. He is well known for his fundamental and other researches in sphere of geology, geography, geodesy, astronomy, astrology, mathematics, mineralogy, medicine, pharmacology, natural sciences, history, philosophy and philology. In addition to his mother tongue, he knew Soghd, Persian, Sanksrit, Arabic, Syrian, Greek and the ancient Hebrew languages. He put forward the hypothesis that the Earth had the form of a globe and predicted the existence of another continent in the eastern hemisphere or the present American continent four centuries before Columbus had discovered it.
Abu Ali ibn Sino (980-1037) he is known in the West by the name Avicenna. Philosopher and doctor. The translation of his grandiose work “Canon of Medicine” into Latin language was the best book in Medicine at that time. For six centuries it served as the best manual and guide book for doctors of all European countries.
Burkhoniddin Al-Marghinoni (1187-1197) the great philologist and one of the founders of the Islamic Law, Jurisprudence, Sheykh ul-Islam (the head of the Islamic clergy) and poet. He created the great work, “Khidoya” (“The True Way”), which consists of 57 books. For eight century the book was considered as the most respected and perfect resource of Jurisprudence. His classic work was not only translated into many European languages, but also there appeared many comments and explanations on it, which bear witness to the universal legacy of Marghiloni.
Sultan Jaloliddin Manguberdi (1197-1231) the defender of the Fatherland, the brave commander, statesman, national hero of Uzbek people. For eleven years (out of his thirty two) he headed the fight against Mongol invaders. The 800-th anniversary of his birth was celebrated in November, 1999.
Amir Timur (1336-1405) the world-wide statesman and commander. He was the founder of a great empire with Samarkand as the capital. It included Maverannahr, Khorazm, the regions located round the Caspian Sea, the territory of present-day Afghanistan, some parts of India, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Caucasus and West Asia. He revived the world’s transcontinental trade route – the Great Silk Road across Maverannahr. Historians note two big services involuntarily rendered to the European people by the talented commander Amir Timur. First of al, he rendered indirect assistance to Russia, so that they could put an end to the Tatar-Mongolian invasion. In 1395, he defeated the troops of the Golden Horde in Terek and devastated its capital city of Bayazid, the Sultan of the Ottoman empire, and having taken Bayazid prisoner, he delayed the invasion of Constantinople by the Turks for about 50 years. He wrote a book entited “Timur Tuzuklari” (“Timur’s codes”), the code of laws n state governing. Its historical importance lies in fact , that for hundred years’ rule of his generation, the Timurids almost complete peace and stability were preserved in the country. It served as an important factor for the development of science, culture, art and economics.
Mirzo Ulughbek (1394-1449) the ruler of Samarkand, the grandson of Amir Timur. Having possessed encyclopedic knowledge he gave preference to mathematics and astronomy. As a ruler of Samarkand, he gathered the best astronomers and mathematicians of his time in the city. In one of the hills not far from the city, he created an observatory equipped with the best instruments of the time. Ulughbek’s main work is his “Table of Stars”, created with great accuracy according to the standards of modern astronomy.
Alisher Navoi (1441-1501) one of the greatest poets of the Medieval East, the author of many lyrical poems, gazelles, prose works, scientific treatises, the founder of Uzbek literature, and statesman – vizier (the minister in the court of the Sultan Husain Mirzo Boiqaro), the patron of scientists, painters and craftsmen. By his order, hospitals, madrasahs and bath houses were created. For more than five centuries the people of the world have enjoyed with reading his books, singing his songs and studying his works. His talent is the property of the whole mankind.
Kamoliddin Bekhzod (1455-1535) is world renowned miniature-painter. I Europe he was named as “Rafaello of the East”. His creative activity prospered under the patronage of Timur’s great-grandson Sultan Husain Bayqaro and the poet Alisher Navoi, who held a high state post. In honour of Bekhzod, the Art Academy of Uzbekistan is named after him.
Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur (1483-1530) is the well-known historian, poet and writer, great statesman, the son of the ruler Frghana, the last ruler from the Timurids’ dynasty, who tried to put an end to the internecine wars and revive the past power and unity of the Timurid state, the founder of the dynasty and the Empire of the Great Moghols in India (1525), which reigned over the country for 336 years. He is the author of the historical work “Babur-name”, where he depicted the lives and customs of the people, the flora and fauna of the regions he ruled, and gave a picturesque portrait of their geographic and ethnographic conditions.